Q. What is an ENDNOTE? What is a FOOTNOTE? What is an IN-TEXT or PARENTHETICAL CITATION?
Endnotes are a method of including a superscript number at the end of the quote or paraphrase to guide the reader to the source material. They refer to a separate page at the end of the paper.
Footnotes use the same method but instead the number refers to a citation at the bottom of the page. Check the style manual such as MLA or Turabian for more information.
An in-text or parenthetical citation generally includes a signal phrase (usually the author's name) to alert the reader you are using someone's ideas and a reference (usually the page number). For example:
Rose (1994) noted that rap music has both overt and covert political dimensions: "Rap's poetic voice is deeply political in context and spirit, but its hidden struggle--that of access to public space and community resources and the interpretations of Black expression--constitutes rap's hidden politics" (p.145).